painting - Renaissance art

painting - Renaissance art
Photograph by Allen Gathmanon Flickr.

The media used was oil paint, which had long been utilised for painting leather ceremonial shields and accoutrements, because it painting Renaissance art was flexible and relatively durable. Donatello became renowned as the greatest sculptor of the Early Renaissance, his masterpieces being his painting Humanist and unusually erotic statue of David, one of the icons of the Florentine republic, and his great monument to Gattamelata, the first large equestrian bronze to be created since Roman times. The contemporary of Donatello, Massacio, was the painterly descendant painting Ink and wash painting of Giotto, furthering the trend towards solidity of form and naturalism of face and gesture that he had begun a century earlier.

Brunelleschi, most famous as the architect of the dome of Florence Cathedral and the Church of San Lorenzo, created a number of sculptural works, including a lifesized Crucifix in Santa Maria Novella, renowned for its naturalism. Uccello was so obsessed with trying to achieve an appearance of perspective that, according to Vasari, it disturbed his sleep.

Although best known for his portraits such as that of Charles VII of France Fouquet also created illuminations, and is thought to be the inventor of the portrait miniature. The material lent itself to the depiction of tonal variations and texture, so facilitating the observation of nature in great detail. The Netherlandish painters did not approach the creation of a picture through a framework of linear perspective and correct proportion.

He carried this technique north and influenced the painters of Venice. Giotto, whose greatest work is the cycle of the Life of Christ at the Arena Chapel in Padua, was seen by the 16th century biographer Giorgio Vasari as rescuing and restoring art from the crude, traditional, Byzantine style prevalent in Italy in the 1200s. Although both the Pisanos and Giotto had students and followers, the first truly Renaissance artists were not to emerge in Florence until 1401 with the competition to sculpt a set of bronze doors of the Baptistery of Florence Cathedral which drew entries from seven young sculptors including Brunelleschi, Donatello and the winner, Lorenzo Ghiberti.

These include two enigmatic figures, Enguerrand Quarton to whom is ascribed the Pieta of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon, and Jean Hey, otherwise known as the Master of Moulins after his most famous work, the Moulins Altarpiece. His contemporary Giorgione left a small number of enigmatic works, including The Tempest, the subject of which has remained a matter of speculation.

Renaissance art marks the transition of Europe from the Medieval period to the Early modern age. In many parts of Europe, Early Renaissance art was created in parallel with Late Medieval art. Their masterpieces are the pulpits of the Baptistery and Cathedral of Pisa.

For inspiration, painters in both Italy and northern Europe frequently turned to Jacobus de Voragine s Golden Legend (1260), a highly influential source book for the lives of saints that had already had a strong influence on Medieval artists. The rebirth of classical antiquity and Renaissance humanism also resulted in many Mythological and history paintings.

Jan van Eyck, with his brother Hubert painted The Altarpiece of the Mystical Lamb. Decorative ornament, often used in painted architectural elements, was especially influenced by classical Roman motifs. Architecture Dance Literature Music Painting Philosophy Science Technology Warfare England France Germany Italy Netherlands Northern Europe Poland Spain Main articles: Early Netherlandish painting for 15th century artists, Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting for 16th century artists .

He then set about an exploration of the expressive possibilities of the human anatomy. Religious altarpieces, fresco cycles, and small works for private devotion were very popular.

The style of painting grew directly out of the Medieval arts of tempera painting, stained glass and book illumination. The following list presents a summary, dealt with more fully in the main articles that are cited above. In Italy in the late 13th and early 14th centuries, the sculpture of Nicola Pisano and his son Giovanni Pisano, working at Pisa, Siena and Pistoia shows markedly classicising tendencies, probably influenced by the familiarity of these artists with ancient Roman sarcophagi.

There were a number of artists at this date who painted famed altarpieces, that are stylistically quite distinct from both the Italian and the Flemish. Their painting developed independently of Early Italian Renaissance painting, and without the influence of a deliberate and conscious striving to revive antiquity.

Renaissance art, with Renaissance Humanist philosophy, spread throughout Europe, affecting both artists and their patrons with the development of new techniques and new artistic sensibilities. Among the most famous were the Limbourg brothers, Flemish illuminators and creators of the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry.

His adoption of oil paint as his primary media meant that he could depict light and its effects on the landscape and objects more naturally and with greater dramatic effect than had ever been done before, as demonstrated in the Mona Lisa. Massacio completed several panel paintings but is best known for the fresco cycle that he began in the Brancacci Chapel with the older artist Masolino and which had profound influence on later painters, including Michelangelo.

Renaissance art, perceived as a rebirth of ancient traditions, took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity, but transformed that tradition by the absorption of recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by application of contemporary scientific knowledge. His solutions can be seen in his masterpiece, the Battle of San Romano.

In these works realism and close observation of the human figure, emotions and lighting are combined with a Medieval formality, which includes gilt backgrounds. Renaissance artists painted a wide variety of themes. In 1475, Hugo van der Goes Portinari Altarpiece arrived in Florence where it was to have a profound influence on many painters, most immediately Ghirlandaio who painted an altarpiece imitating its elements. Hieronymus Bosch was a painter who employed the type of fanciful forms that were often utilised to decorate borders and letters in illuminated manuscripts, combining plant and animal forms with architectonic ones.

As Late Renaissance art (Mannerism) developed, it took on different and distinctive characteristics in every region. The influences upon the development of Renaissance art in the early 15th century are those that also affected Philosophy, Literature, Architecture, Theology, Science, Government and other aspects of society. Ovidian stories, for example, were very popular.

By 1500 the Renaissance style prevailed. His dissection of cadavers carried forward the understanding of skeletal and muscular anatomy, as seen in the unfinished St Jerome.

The earliest Netherlandish oil paintings are meticulous and detailed like tempera paintings. Michelangelo, in neither his painting nor his sculpture demonstrates any interest in the observation of any natural object except the human body.

Jean Fouquet, painter of the royal court, visited Italy in 1437 and reflects the influence of Florentine painters such as Paolo Uccello. His commission by Pope Julius II to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling resulted in the supreme masterpiece of figurative composition, which was to have profound effect on every subsequent generation of European artists. Standing alongside Leonardo and Michelangelo as the third great painter of the High Renaissance was the younger Raphael, who in a short life span painted a great number of lifelike and engaging portraits, including those of Pope Julius II and his successor Pope Leo X, and numerous portayals of the Madonna and Christ Child, including the Sistine Madonna. In Northern Italy the High Renaissance represented by the religious paintings of Giovanni Bellini which include several large altarpieces of a type known as Sacred Conversation which show a group of saints around the enthroned Madonna.

One of the most significant painters of Northern Italy was Andrea Mantegna, who was decorated the interior of a room, the Camera degli Sposi for his patron Ludovico Gonzaga, setting portraits of the family and court into an illusionistic architectural space. The end of the Early Renaissance in Italian art is marked, like its beginning, by a particular commission that drew artists together, this time in cooperation rather than competition. In the sixteen large paintings, the artists, although each working in his individual style, agreed on principals of format, and utilised the techniques of lighting, linear and atmospheric perspective, anatomy, foreshortening and characterisation that had been carried to a high point in the large Florentine studios of Ghiberti, Verrocchio, Ghirlandaio and Perugino. The universal genius Leonardo da Vinci was to further perfect the aspects of pictorial art (lighting, linear and atmospheric perspective, anatomy, foreshortening and characterisation) that had preoccupied artists of the Early Renaissance, in a lifetime of studying and meticulously recording his observations of the natural world.

It is probable that Antonello da Messina became familiar with Van Eyck s work, while in Naples or Sicily. They maintained a Medieval view of hierarchical proportion and religious symbolism, while delighting in a realistic treatment of material elements, both natural and man-made.

His studies of perspective are thought to have influenced the painter Masaccio. When taken from the context of the illumination and peopled with humans, these forms give Bosch s paintings a surreal quality which have no parallel in the work of any other Renaissance painter.

The ealiest works of Titian date from the era of the High Renaissance, including a massive altarpiece The Assumption of the Virgin which combines human action and drama with spectacular colour and atmosphere. The painters of the Low Countries at this period included Jan van Eyck, his brother Hubert van Eyck, Robert Campin, Hans Memling, Rogier van der Weyden and Hugo van der Goes. Pope Sixtus IV had rebuilt the Papal Chapel, named the Sistine Chapel in his honour, and commissioned a group of artists, Botticelli, Perugino, Ghirlandaio and Cosimo Rosselli to decorate its wall with fresco cycles depicting the Life of Christ and the Life of Moses.

Massaccio s developments were carried forward in the paintings of Fra Angelico, particularly in his frescos at the Convent of San Marco in Florence. The treatment of the elements of perspective and light in painting was of particular concern to 15th century Florentine painters. Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of that period of European history known as the Renaissance, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music and science.

He perfected his technique in depicting it, while in his early twenties, by the creation of the enormous marble statue of David and the group the Pieta, in St Peter s Basilica, Rome. Piero della Francesca made systematic and scientific studies of both light and linear perspective, the results of which can be seen in his fresco cycle of The History of the True Cross in San Francesco, Arezzo. In Naples, the painter Antonello da Messina began using oil paints for portraits and religious paintings at a date that preceded other Italian painters, possibly about 1450.

Contemporary with Giovanni Pisano, the Florentine painter Giotto developed a manner of figurative painting that was unprecedentedly naturalistic, three dimensional, life-like and classicising, when compared with that of his contemporaries and teacher Cimabue. His depiction of human emotion in The Last Supper set the benchmark for religious painting. The art of Leonardo s younger contemporary Michelangelo took a very different direction.

His masterpiece is the triptych The Garden of Earthly Delights. The artists of France, (including duchies such as Burgundy) were often associated with courts, providing illuminated manuscripts and portraits for the nobility as well as devotional paintings and altarpieces.